There are many kinds of glass, which can meet the different needs of different occasions. By adjusting the material and process of glass manufacturing, the manufacturer can make the properties of glass material change greatly, thus making it more stable and durable. For example, the commonly used tempered glass is not only much stronger than ordinary glass, but also the fragments are safe and reliable.
I. Coloring Processing Method of Glass Internal Materials
Adding substances that can form colouring ions, compound colloids and metal colloidal particles to glass raw materials to make them present different colours can be divided into four types according to the colouring mechanism.
Ion colouring. It is a compound that adds transition elements such as cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) to the glass. It exists in the ionic state in the glass. Because the valence electrons of cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) transit between different energy levels (ground state and excited state), it causes selective absorption of visible light and coloring, such as cobalt blue, manganese violet and nickel green.
(2) Colloidal particle colouring of compounds. It is to add sulphur or selenium compounds (such as CdS, CdSe) to the glass containing zinc (ZnO). CdO, ZnS, ZnSe and so on are formed in the glass. Then they are heat treated twice below annealing temperature to form CdS, CdSe and grow into larger colloidal particles. The glass is colored by light scattering, such as selenium red, cadmium yellow and other color glasses.
Colouring of metal colloidal particles. It is to add oxides (such as gold, silver, copper) which are easy to decompose into metal state to glass raw materials, dissolve in the glass as ionic state first, then transform into atom state after heat treatment, aggregate and grow into colloidal particles, which are colored by absorption of visible light caused by light scattering, such as golden red, copper red, silver yellow and so on.
(4) Semiconductor colouring. It is to add CdS, CdSe, CdTe and other chromogenic agents to the glass material. There are no absorption peaks in the visible region, but continuous absorption zones. The transmission zone and absorption zone are a very steep demarcation line. Different from the above-mentioned coloring mechanisms, the color of CdS varies with the ratio of CdS/CdSe. For example, CdS tends to be orange, CdSe tends to be red, and CdTe tends to be black, i.e. they move towards long wave in the order of O 2-, S 2-, Se 2-, Te 2-. According to the band theory of semiconductors, the electrophilic potential of these anions decreases in turn, and the valence electrons of these anions can be excited to the conduction band (excited state) with lower energy (near visible light) in turn, so that their truncated wave limit enters the visible region, leading to glass coloration.
Large pieces of coloured glass used in buildings can be manufactured by flat glass production process, or coloured glass can be "matched" with colorless glass or other coloured glass.
2. How is the color on the glass?
There are two kinds of colored glass, one is painting, the other is pasting.
Colored glass is made of ordinary glass by adding colorant. The amount of coloring dose, melting time and melting temperature will affect the depth of firing color in varying degrees. Colloidal colorants, such as gold, silver, copper, selenium and sulfur, are used to suspend very small particles in the glass and make the glass colored. In the process of firing, no matter which colorant is added, flux is added.
Colored glass is a solid sol. Solid sol refers to the sol formed by using solid as dispersant.
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